INBRE project leaders Drs. Sally Molloy (University of Maine) and Suegene Noh (Colby College) co-chaired a session at the 2021 North East Regional IDeA Conference (NERIC) – Investigations of Microbial Fitness, Virulence, and Drug Resistance. The session explored host immunity and the mechanisms by which microbes adapt to the host environment or exposure to antimicrobial agents. Better understanding host-microbe interactions and how microbes effectively respond to stress will be key to developing more effective treatments as we continue to fight pathogens both old (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and new (SARS-CoV-2). Speakers at the session included scientists from New Hampshire and Rhode Island INBRE and COBRE programs.